If fourth-dimensional extrusion is not the answer chosen, then the ability to dissolve iron may have developed—which implies that free iron exists on the planet under circumstances that make the ability to dissolve it a useful one.
For some time now, men have been building machines that can more and more closely imitate the action of living things. Changes that decrease entropy do not take place spontaneously. Water or iron oxide would not be good fuels under any reasonable circumstances; there are admittedly some energy-yielding reactions involving these, but they call for special and unlikely reactants like sodium or fluorine—and if those reactants are around, we could get much more energy by using them on other substances.
Philosophy aside, there are many more details of shape to be considered for nonhuman beings. Most authors seem to have learned that it is extremely hard to invent anything stranger than some of the life 1984 cuckoos nest comparison essay already on our planet, and many writers as a result have taken to using either these creatures as they are, or modifying them in size and habit, or mixing them together.
The lower size limits was set by the number of cells needed for a good brain, and the upper one by the bulk of body which could be handled by a brain without overspecialization. The story obviously, as some critics have been known to remark comes afterward.
We will have to ignore cells and DNA and ask only: Aquarium suppliers are perfectly justified in selling air pumps; they are not exploiting the innocent fish-fanciers. The protective mucus our own stomachs use is only one of the possibilities. First, I find it more fun. That is, it can become aware, somehow, of some alteration in its environment, and will then produce an alteration in itself that will allow it to continue to live as comfortably as possible.
There will be hide-and-seek techniques among predators and prey essentially incomprehensible to human beings, and therefore a tremendous challenge to the imagination and verbal skill of the writer. Therefore, if we travel to Mars in a story, the vehicle must operate either along physical laws we currently think we know, or at least on more or less convincing extrapolations of those laws.
The entropy decrease is more than balanced by the entropy increase in the energy source, but that is beside the point here. They will occur only through the influx of energy from some source. We become safer, then, if we define life as the property displayed by those objects which can—either actually or potentially, either in whole or in part—move, sense, and respond, metabolize, grow, and reproduce in such a way as to decrease its entropy store.
You gave your audience a good time. Things are not really this bad. It seems pretty certain that life, as well as needing energy, must be of complex structure. I have made a number of quite definite statements in the preceding pages, and will make several more before finishing this chapter.
A thermostat in a house senses temperature and responds adaptively by preventing that temperature from rising too high or falling too low. Ordinary evolution will have been affected by the fact that flight by larger animals is possible, so there will be a much wider range of large flying organisms than we know on Earth.
Even I, a spare-time writer who seldom saddles himself with deadlines, spend some of that spare time writing the story itself.
On our own planet, the strongest and most active creatures use the oxygen in the atmosphere to convert food materials to carbon dioxide and water. And if it can play the role of life, we will have to call it living.
Mission of Gravity complicated the size and speed issue by variable gravity.
Something like out of every atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms; even Earth, which seems to be one of the most thoroughly dehydrogenated objects in the observable part of space, has all it needs for an extensive collection of life forms.
This is all done at the expense of energy drawn from the food or, ultimately, from sunlight, and the total entropy change in the system including food or the sun is an increase.
On Earth, this complexity involves the phosphate-sugar-base polymers called popularly DNA and RNA for specifications, polypeptide and polysaccharide structures for most of the machinery, and—perhaps most fundamentally—the hydrogen bond to provide structural links which can be changed around as needed without the need for temperatures high enough to ruin the main framework.ค้นพบ Link ทั้งสิ้น รายการ 1.
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