In its particular versions, for deontology there is the question of how to justify its claims that certain moral rules are the correct ones, and for utilitarianism of how to justify its claim that all that really matters morally are consequences for happiness or well-being. Crucially associated with the notion of obligation is the notion of blame.
If the problems are varied, we should not expect to find their solution in one rigid and inflexible rule that does not admit exception. But what does it mean for E to depend upon a particular instance of D?
These debates are discussed in section 5.
Lieg niet tegen andere mensen. Here, the thick term only groups together those cases in which a thing is E in virtue of some particular instance of D.
These general approaches are discussed in the next section. It may be that the virtue ethics of Hutcheson and Hume can be naturally extended into a modern political philosophy Hursthouse —91; Slote In section 5b, further support for shapelessness is discussed. Valuing honesty as she does, she chooses, where possible to work with honest people, to have honest friends, to bring up her children to be honest.
Moore, who hold Reductive Views of the thick Hurka Plato and Aristotle took eudaimonia as the final end or purpose of life and made virtues as the necessary condition to achieve this goal. Virtue ethics is character-based. This has led to very fruitful and exciting work being done within this area of philosophy.
Anscombe may have wanted to ignore this point in her attempt to revive Aritotelian ethics. But, even this is critiqued by those who believe that moral rules or principle are always more fundamental than virtues, so that even virtues are determined by rules.
Various attempts have been made to account for this putative difference. But Hare has provided a distinction in kind that has largely escaped notice.
The best available science today including evolutionary theory and psychology supports rather than undermines the ancient Greek assumption that we are social animals, like elephants and wolves and unlike polar bears. One approach stems from traditional non-cognitivism.
It alters the quality of our consciousness.Rosalind Hursthouse Applying Virtue Ethics to Our Treatment of the Other Animals Applying virtue ethics to moral issues should be straightforward.
Virtue ethics is one of three major theories in normative ethics, the other two being deontological ethics and consequentialism (or utilitarianism).It holds the cultivation of moral character and embodiment of virtues as the essential issues in ethics, rather than the establishment of rules based on duties (deontological ethics) or consequences.
2 Hursthouse’s Theory Let’s now take a brief look at Rosalind Hursthouse’s virtue ethics, as it’s fairly typical. For Hursthouse, a virtue is a rather complex thing. In recent years, debates about whether art is a source of knowledge have been common in aesthetics.
Introductory texts and reference works generally contain material on the debate between cognitivists and anticognitivists. Hursthouse is a good source for the ancient Greek background to. Thick Concepts. A term expresses a thick concept if it expresses a specific evaluative concept that is also substantially descriptive.
It is a matter of debate how this rough account should be unpacked, but examples can help to convey the basic idea. Normative ethics is the study of ethical action. It is the branch of philosophical ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking.
Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because it examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the .Download